1 Pick out 2 or 3 details from the passage which give you the impression that this book is set some time ago. Briefly explain why you chose those details. 2 marks
Firstly， we are told that there are ‘lamps’ provided on the train. This refers to a light which burns gas or oil. These are no longer provided on trains as lights are powered by electricity， suggesting that the passage is set a long time ago.
Secondly， we are told that the windows are touched by puffs of cloudy whiteness. This refers to the steam being given off by the trains engine. This shows that the passage is set in the past as trains are now powered by electricity and do not give off steam.
Thirdly， the noise of the train is compared to kicking against a baths tin sides. This suggests that the passage is set a while ago as baths are no longer made from tin today， rather from porcelain or plastic.
2 How does the writer show the differences between the characters of the three children - Peter， Phyllis and Bobbie？ You could refer to short phrases or words to make your point but do not copy out long sentences. 4 marks
Peter is clearly presented as the leader of the children in this passage， and Phyllis and Bobbie as his followers. Peter gives the children clear instructions， telling them ‘Come on， … Quick！ Manhole！’. This suggests that he is in charge of the group and their activities. This is further emphasised by the short sentences， punctuated with forceful exclamation marks， in which he speaks and the assertive tone of his instructions. Moreover， we are told that ‘Peter caught hold of Bobbie’s arm， ‘in case she should be frightened’. This shows that Peter is protective of the other children and further asserts his position as the leader of the group.
By contrast， Phyllis and Bobbie are shown to be less confident than Peter. Both of them follow Peters lead and follow him. However， Phyllis is presented as the least confident of the three. She continually protests about continuing into the tunnel， saying let me go back and struggling against Bobbie who has to drag【ged】 her towards the manhole. This clearly suggests that Phyllis feels uncomfortable with the situation， emphasised by the fact that she crie【s】 out to the others， rather than merely staying calm and following them. Moreover， Bobbie tells Phyllis not to be a coward. This asserts Bobbies comparative confidence and shows that she is not afraid of the tunnel which represents a contrast to Phyllis. Thus， the differences between the childrens characters are rooted in their confidence or lack thereof in going into the tunnel.
3 Look again at lines 40-42 “The roar of the advancing train… baths tin sides”. Why do you think it is effective to describe the noise of the train in this way？ 5 marks
The author uses a simile to convey a vivid impression of the train coming through the tunnel. He states that the train’s roar was ‘louder than the noise you hear when your head is under water in the bath and both taps are running， and you are kicking with your heels against the bath’s tin sides’. This comparison is effective as it clearly conveys the overwhelming and all encompassing noise which the train is creating in the tunnel. This is all the more effective as the comparison to being in a bath is something which the reader can clearly understand and relate to it in a visceral manner. Thus， the reader can understand what the children are experiencing in the tunnel： both the excitement of Peter and Bobbie and the terror of Phyllis.
In addition to this， the image of being under water imitates the setting of the tunnel. Having ones head underwater makes sounds less defined and mimics the noises of the train echoing around the tunnel. This creates a vivid impression of the setting for the reader and again provides a reference point for the sensory experience of the children， thus ng the comparison effective.
Moreover， the author makes this comparison all the more effective by using a list of three sounds. This list creates a vivid sense of the overwhelming sensory experience which the children are experience. This is further emphasised by the author’s use of the polysyndeton of ‘and’ which conveys not only the multifaceted elements of both touch and sound but also conveys the pace at which the train is approaching. Thus， this makes the author’s simile all the more vivid and exciting for the reader.
这里最主要的写作手法是明喻 （simile）这一点需要很明确的写出来并用P.E.E结构进行分析。其他写作手法包括list of three和polysyndeton， 但最重要的是明喻。如果可以写出并分析其他两种写作手法就可以拿到更高的分数。
4 Look again at lines 53-55 “And now… the tunnel”. How does the writer create the drama and tension of this moment？ 4 marks
Firstly， the author creates tension by appealing to the senses of the reader in the passage. He uses the sounds ‘a roar and a rattle’ of the train， the flash of light， the ‘smell of smoke’ and the ‘blast of hot air’ which the children experience. This emphasises the drama of the moment as the reader feels like they are there with the children in the tunnel. This is further underpinned by the use of alliteration. The author enhances the sound of the train approaching which he describes as ‘a rush and a roar and a rattle’. The repetition of the ‘r’ sound mimics the sound of the train travelling over the rails and increases the tension of the moment as the train approaches the children.
Moreover， the drama of the moment is increased by the onomatopoeia employed by the author. He describes the clanging and jangling of the train creating a vivid impression of the noises of the train reverberating around the tunnel. These verbs imitate the sound of the train and thus add to the drama of the scene in the readers mind as they are able to almost hear the sounds themselves. Thus， by appealing to all the senses of the reader and intensifying them through the use of rhetorical devices， particularly the onomatopoeia and alliteration related to the sounds of the train， the author is able to heighten the drama and tension of this scene.
描写了火车飞驰而来的声音 ‘a roar and a rattle’， 光亮 the ‘flash of light’，气味 the ‘smell of smoke’ 和三个孩子感受到的 the ‘blast of hot air’这一点很重要，最好在前几句话中就写出来。
An ugly shade of purple filled the air； the placid， controlled grey that had previously coloured the clouds had been chased away， like a timid mouse in the presence of a predatory tomcat or pernicious owl. The sinister blotches spat out torrents of water which tumbled down directly upon us. The foaming waves continued to beat down against the razor sharp rocks. Each rolling crescent reached a deafening crescendo as it clattered against the shore. There was no respite from the water. Everything： sodden.
I bent down， pretending to ready myself to lift one of the scattered chests from the beach to the wagon. In reality， I was doubled over from the exhaustion of the whole exercise. The water seemed to drag away a man’s energy like the waves clawing at the beach as the tide goes out. I was glad to have completed my time hauling in rope to retrieve cases of innumerable shapes and sizes from the water. At least now it was only my nostrils which burnt from the salt of the sea’s sharp spray rather than my delicate palms. The other men seemed not to care as they diligently went about their thankless task， their souls as hardy as their hands after years of this relentless work.
“Get a move on！ You lazy oaf！” howled the leader of our motley crew.
His coarse words were directly aimed at me and me alone. I groaned with effort （and a few muttered curses） as I raised the chest a few millimetres off the ground. With all my strength - and an unshakable desire to avoid the scorn of my peers - I heaved the chest onto the cart. I fell backwards. My clothes clung to me like a barnacle to a ships hull as I sunk further into the soft sand. Round the cove， the haunting silhouette of the shipwrecked vessel swayed， almost serenely in the swirling wind， back and forth against its rocky prison. The last of the crates trickled onto the beach and the thought of home； its roaring fire and edible， if not exceptional， supper loomed large in my mind. Desperate men will do desperate work … .
第一段主要用来set the scene。尽量做到词汇和标点运用的多样化。
这是一个很短的段落 – 只有一句话，这和前两个长段落行程鲜明对比，使文章更有层次感。另外，我们在这段里用了direct speech。Direct speech能让你的作文更生动，但要注意标点符号的使用。